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On the evening of the 23rd of December the fleet weighed anchor, and after encountering a terrible storm, during which the little Prince Albert died in the arms of Lady Hamilton, and the old Vanguard, battered and torn by the French shot at Aboukir, nearly foundered, the fugitive court reached Palerma on the morning of the 27th of December, 1798. The victory of the Nile had so altered the position of affairs in the Mediterranean that fresh instructions were issued by the admiralty, which' defined Nelson's principal duty as * the protection of the coasts of Sicily, Naples, and the Adriatic, and in the event of war being renewed in Italy, an active co-opera- tion with the Austrian and Neapolitan armies.* Further than this, it was recognised that from the nature of the situation and from the uncertainty of events which might occur, much must of necessity be left to Nelson's discretion. ^ Article IV of the treaty, Marten's Recueil des Traites^ vol. Ruffo could not under the circumstemces pick and choose his men, and among the ranks of the so-called Christian army were to be found the off- scourings of the gaols of Sicily, let loose on the shores of Calabria by Danero, the governor of Messina, in disobedience to the orders he had re- ceived from Palermo to send them to join the ^ Dated 2Sth of January, 1799. The garrisons of those which resisted were put to the sword, and all individuals suspected of Jacobinism were ruthlessly slaughtered. INTRODUCTION xxxiii artillery and a detachment of Cossacks, to assist .
In the end, however, mainly owing to the skilful dispositions of Nelson, ably seconded by Lady Hamilton, the court, with property to the alleged value of 2,500,000/.,^ were safely embarked on board the flagship Vanguard and the frigate Alcmene. INTRODUCTION xxv the Bourbon monarchs from the Italian peninsula, and the infliction of all the miseries and horrors of civil strife on their subjects. His responsibility for the misfortunes which had overtaken the King and Queen of Naples was so great, that he was drawn into a promise that he would not abandon them till brighter prospects had dawned upon them.^ This undertaking was not, as has often been alleged, in direct conflict with his duty. * Secretary to the Admiralty to Earl St Vincent, 3rd of October, 1798,/^x/, p. xxvl INTRO D UCTION George III, not merely informally but actually, in virtue of a treaty concluded on the ist of December, 1798, which enacted that Great Britain should keep a naval force in the Mediterranean * decidedly superior to that of the enemy, in order to provide by this means for the safety of the dominions of his Sicilian Majesty.' ^ As time went on the news which trickled through to Palermo from Naples became more and more disheartening, till Nelson was obliged to confess that what he had believed to be impossible had come about, and that the Neapolitan army, * la plus belle armee de TEurope,' had melted away before a vastly inferior French force. The queen was greatly distressed by the news, which reached Palermo about the loth of January, that the Portuguese Commodore Campbell had burned all the warships lying inside the mole at Naples in direct disobedience to Nelson's orders,^ a hasty and ill-considered act which the queen rightly foresaw would seriously discourage the loyalists of the capital, as it severed the last link between them and the fugitive court. No more ragged or undisciplined horde ever gathered for the reconquest of a king- dom. b xxxii INTRODUCTION celebrated Fra Diavolo, who had raised the standard of revolt in the country round Gaeta.^ Town after town fell before the onslaught of the ' Sanfedisti,' as Ruffo's army came to be called.
Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. In response to this appeal a detachment of 400 Russian infantrymen with four guns was landed by Sorokin at Manfre- donia, and placed under the command of Captain Baillie, an Irishman in the service of the tsar.
We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. Micheroux also attached himself to this force in the capacity of his Sicilian Majesty's minister pleni- potentiary with the Russian armies.
The court were therefore anxious that they should be brought to Palermo instead, where they could embark on board Nelson's ships, and proceed in a very few days to Naples, in which case the expense b2 xxxi V IN TROD UCTION of victualling them at sea would fall on the British. Naples itself was, as Troubridge roughly phrased it, * in the devil of a ferment.' The terror which the French had instilled into the hearts of the turbulent lazzaroni began to die away, and the French and Parthenopean soldiers could no longer venture out at night into the streets with safety, owing to the bands of bravos who lurked in dark corners and alleys, waiting to poignard any belated stragglers who might pass their way.
If they were to land at Taranto, as jjrovided by the treaty, they would have a long and difficult march to Naples before them, and the impoverished Neapolitan exchequer would have to bear the expense of their maintenance during that time. It was rumoured that the king had accompanied the expedition to Procida, and the island was visited by crowds of enthusiastic loyalists who were anxious to pay their respects to their royal master.
Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. It was in fact very doubtful whether the royalists in the city itself could be kept in check for any length of time.
But from the favourable aspect of affairs in Italy, I am sure no attack will be made here whilst xl INTRODUCTION the French know we have such a force to act against them.' ^ Whilst the court at Palermo and their rebel subjects at Naples were alike — though with very- different feelings — anxiously watching for the • Galli- spana,' Ruffo had been steadily advancing towards the Adriatic coast.Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. If the Spanish fleet under Masaredowere to be defeated, or blockaded in Cartagena, then the road would be clear for an expedition to Naples.About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. y/f ///'f/ / y/ /// "/ ' ' '/•' DA '0 PUBLICATIONS OF THE NAVY RECORDS SOCIETY Vol. Nelson AND The Neapolitan Jacobins TO MY MOTHER 165665 THE COUNCIL OF THE NAVY RECORDS SOCIETY I 903- I 904 PATRON RR. But if on the other hand Masaredo were to effect a junction with Bruix, then the British fleet would at once be recalled to join St.A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. At Usciakoff s request he therefore drew up an official note for the allied admirals, in which he stated that the provinces of the mainland had revolted against the Parthenopean Government; that a British squadron was block- ading the Bay of Naples ; and that the capital itself was only held by a weak French army, which it would be impossible for the Directory to reinforce in view of the commencement of hostilities on the Rhine and in North Italy. He suggested, therefore, that the bulk of them should be landed at Manfredonia to reinforce the army of the Holy Faith ; and promised that he would take the remainder on board his squadron to join the British in the Bay of Naples.Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. These terms were not those which Micheroux had been instructed to press for ; but he felt that, as it was extremely doubtful whether the Russians would ever arrive at Zara, it would be useless to protract the negotiations with Usciakoff, and a plan of operations was accordingly arranged between them on the above basis.